International Quarterly Journal of Biology & Life Sciences

eISSN 2320-4257
Biolife, Volume 3, Issue 3, 2015

Research Article

Triungulin occurrence and its load carrying capacity by Xylocopa letipes Drury
(Hymenoptera: Xylocopidae)

Anna Gophane1, T. V. Sathe2*, Pallavi Khairmode3, Sheetal Londhe4 and Shilpa Kurne5

1-5 Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, India.



Triungulins are young instar larvae of meloid (blister) beetles. Blister beetles are pest insects feeding on flowering bodies of
several agricultural and non agricultural plants. On the contrary Xylocopa letipes Drury is very potential plant pollinator but
triungulins of Nemognatha  plazata Fab. act as limiting factor of X. letipes population by parasitism. Therefore, any advance
knowledge on host parasite association of this model will add great relevance in protecting X. letipes. Triungulins of blister
beetle N.  plazata ascended on X. letipes body during the visits to flowers of Peltophorum pterocarpum L. and later brought to
the Xylocopa nesting. Triungulins used grubs of X. letipes for food. The triungulins N. plazata were different from others by
having 1 or 2 stemmata on each side of head and was not parallel sided but pointed and with two short bristles to posterior side
of the body. Triungulin aggregations responded as bridge between to substrates, contraction and expansion of biomass for
external stimuli and as attractant for N. plazata. The per cent parasitism recorded on X. Letipes was 36.84% and 37. 14% in
the years 2014 and 2015 respectively and Xylocopa comfortably carried the load of 23 triungulins on its body.

Key words- Xylocopa, parasitism, Triungulins, Host - parasite interaction, pollination
Published online 31 July, 2015
© 2015 Published by Global Science Publishing Group, USA

How to Cite this Article:

Anna Gophane, T. V. Sathe, Pallavi Khairmode, Sheetal Londhe and Shilpa Kurne (2015). Triungulin occurrence and its load carrying
capacity by Xylocopa letipes Drury (Hymenoptera: Xylocopidae). Biolife, 3(3), pp 688-693. doi:10.17812/blj.2015.3318

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